Stroke occurs across the lifespan with unique issues in the fetus, neonate, and child. The past decade has seen substantial advances in paediatric stroke research and clinical care, but many unanswered questions and controversies remain. The pathobiology of perinatal stroke needs to be better understood if prevention strategies are to be realised. Similarly, enhanced understanding of the mechanisms underlying childhood stroke, including cerebral arteriopathies, could inform the development of mechanism-specific treatments. Emerging clinical trials, including studies of neonatal sinovenous thrombosis and childhood arterial stroke, offer the hope of evidence-based treatment options in the near future. Early recognition of stroke in children is a key educational target for both the public and health-care professionals, and has translational potential to advance the application of neuroprotective, thrombolytic, and antithrombotic interventions and rehabilitation strategies to the earliest possible timepoints after stroke onset, improving outcomes and quality of life for affected children and their families.
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