29 French adult patients with PMM2-congenital disorder of glycosylation: outcome of the classical pediatric phenotype and depiction of a late-onset phenotype

Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2014 Dec 11:9:207. doi: 10.1186/s13023-014-0207-4.


PMM2-CDG (formerly known as CDG Ia) a deficiency in phosphomannomutase, is the most frequent congenital disorder of glycosylation. The phenotype encompasses a wide range of neurological and non-neurological manifestations comprising cerebellar atrophy and intellectual deficiency. The phenotype of the disorder is well characterized in children but the long term course of the disease is unknown and the phenotype of late onset forms has not been comprehensively described. We thus retrospectively collected the clinical, biological and radiological data of 29 French PMM2-CDG patients aged 15 years or more with a proven molecular diagnosis (16 females and 13 males). In addition, thirteen of these patients were reexamined at the time of the study to obtain detailed information. 27 of the 29 patients had a typical PMM2-CDG phenotype, with infantile hypotonia, strabismus, developmental delay followed by intellectual deficiency, epilepsy, retinitis pigmentosa and/or visceral manifestations. The main health problems for these patients as teenagers and in adulthood were primary ovarian insufficiency, growth retardation, coagulation anomalies and thrombotic events, skeletal deformities and osteopenia/osteoporosis, retinitis pigmentosa, as well as peripheral neuropathy. Three patients had never walked and three lost their ability to walk. The two remaining patients had a late-onset phenotype unreported to date. All patients (n = 29) had stable cerebellar atrophy. Our findings are in line with those of previous adult PMM2-CDG cohorts and points to the need for a multidisciplinary approach to the follow up of PMM2-CDG patients to prevent late complications. Additionally, our findings add weight to the view that PMM2-CDG may be diagnosed in teenage/adult patients with cerebellar atrophy, even in the absence of intellectual deficiency or non-neurological involvement.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age of Onset
  • Cohort Studies
  • Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation / diagnosis*
  • Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation / epidemiology
  • Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation / genetics*
  • Female
  • France / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phenotype*
  • Phosphotransferases (Phosphomutases) / deficiency*
  • Phosphotransferases (Phosphomutases) / genetics
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Young Adult


  • Phosphotransferases (Phosphomutases)
  • phosphomannomutase 2, human

Supplementary concepts

  • Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1A