Objective: Surgical site infection (SSI) following epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) primary surgery (PS) occurs in 10-15% of women. Perioperative factors associated with SSI and impact of SSI on survival were determined.
Methods: EOC cases that underwent PS from 1/2/2003 to 12/30/2011 were retrospectively reviewed. SSIs were defined according to ACS NSQIP. Logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with SSI. Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to evaluate the association of patient and perioperative characteristics with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS).
Results: Among 888 cases, 96 (10.8%) developed SSI: 32 superficial, 2 deep, and 62 organ/space. Factors independently associated with superficial SSI were increasing BMI (odds ratio 1.41 [95% confidence interval, 1.12, 1.76] per 5kg/m(2)), increasing operative time (1.24 [1.02, 1.50] per hour), and advanced stage (III/IV) (10.22 [1.37, 76.20]). Factors independently associated with organ/space SSI were history of gastroesophageal reflux disease (2.13 [1.23, 3.71]), surgical complexity (intermediate 3.11 [1.02, 9.49]; high 8.07 [2.60, 25.09]; referent: low), and residual disease (RD) (measureable ≤1cm 1.77 [0.96, 3.27]; suboptimal >1cm (3.36 [1.48, 7.61]; referent: microscopic). Occurrence of superficial (hazard ratio 1.69 [1.12, 2.57]) or organ/space (1.46 [1.07, 2.00]) SSI was independently associated with worse OS. SSI occurrence was not independently associated with DFS.
Conclusions: SSI after PS is associated with decreased OS. Most risk factors for SSI are not modifiable. Alternative measures to lower rates of SSIs are needed as this may improve OS. Preoperative identification of SSI risk factors may assist in risk-assessment and operative planning.
Keywords: Epithelial ovarian cancer; Primary cytoreduction; Primary surgery; Surgical outcomes; Surgical site infection.
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