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, 9 (12), e114695
eCollection

Wing Base Structural Data Support the Sister Relationship of Megaloptera and Neuroptera (Insecta: Neuropterida)

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Wing Base Structural Data Support the Sister Relationship of Megaloptera and Neuroptera (Insecta: Neuropterida)

Chenjing Zhao et al. PLoS One.

Abstract

The phylogenetic status and the monophyly of the holometabolous insect order Megaloptera has been an often disputed and long unresolved problem. The present study attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among three orders, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, and Raphidioptera, within the superorder Neuropterida, based on wing base structure. Cladistic analyses were carried out based on morphological data from both the fore- and hindwing base. A sister relationship between Megaloptera and Neuroptera was recovered, and the monophyly of Megaloptera was corroborated. The division of the order Megaloptera, the traditional higher classification, into Corydalidae (Corydalinae + Chauliodinae) and Sialidae, was also supported by our wing base data analyses.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. Wing base of Corydalidae (Megaloptera).
(A) Protohermes costalis Walker (Corydalinae), forewing base; (B) same, hindwing base; (C) Neochauliodes punctatolosus Liu & Yang (Chauliodinae), forewing base; (D) same, hindwing base. Number of morphological character: character state for phylogenetic analysis is indicated by straight line for relevant position.
Figure 2
Figure 2. Wing base of Sialidae (Megaloptera).
(A) Sialis sibirica McLachlan, forewing base; (B) same, hindwing base.
Figure 3
Figure 3. Wing base of Neuroptera.
(A) Paraglenurus japonicas (Mclachlan) (Myrmeleontidae), forewing base; (B) same, hindwing base; (C) Heterosmylus wolonganus Yang (Osmylidae), forewing base; (D) same, hindwing base.
Figure 4
Figure 4. Wing base of Neuroptera.
(A) Eumantispa harmandi (Navás) (Mantispidae), forewing base; (B) same, hindwing base; (C) Chrysoperla sp. (Chrysopidae), forewing base; (D) same, hindwing base.
Figure 5
Figure 5. Wing base of Neuroptera.
(A) Semidalis aleyrodiformis (Stephens) (Coniopterygidae), forewing base; (B) same, hindwing base; (C) Sulphalasca sp. (Ascalaphidae), forewing base; (D) same, hindwing base.
Figure 6
Figure 6. Wing base of Raphidioptera.
(A) Inocellia fujiana Yang (Inocelliidae), forewing base; (B) same, hindwing base; (C) Xanthostigma gobicola Aspöck & Aspöck (Raphidiidae), forewing base; (D) same, hindwing base.
Figure 7
Figure 7. Wing base of Hymenoptera.
(A) Tenthredo sp. (Tenthredinidae), forewing base; (B) same, hindwing base. Wing base of Psocoptera. (C) Taeniostigminae sp. (Amphipsocidae), forewing base; (D) same, hindwing base.
Figure 8
Figure 8. Morphological variations of 1Ax among Neuropterida families.
(A) Protohermes costalis (Walker) (Corydalinae); (B) Neochauliodes punctatolosus Liu & Yang (Chauliodinae); (C) Sialis sibirica McLachlan (Sialidae); (D) Paraglenurus japonicas (McLachlan) (Myrmeleontidae); (E) Heterosmylus wolonganus Yang (Osmylidae); (F) Eumantispa harmandi (Navás) (Mantispidae); (G) Chrysoperla sp. (Chrysopidae); (H) Semidalis aleyrodiformis (Stephens) (Coniopterygidae); (I) Sulphalasca sp. (Ascalaphidae); (J) Dilar hastatus Zhang, Liu, Aspöck & Aspöck (Dilaridae); (K) Nipponeurorthus fuscinervis Nakahara (Nevrorthidae); (L) Hemerobius sp. (Hemerobiidae); (M) Inocellia fujiana Yang (Inocelliidae); (N) Xanthostigma gobicola Aspöck & Aspöck (Raphidiidae); (O) Tenthredo sp. (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae); (P) Taeniostigminae sp. (Psocoptera: Amphipsocidae).
Figure 9
Figure 9. Higher taxa Neuropterida phylogeny inferred from wing base data.
A strict consensus of the most parsimonious trees inferred from the fore- and hindwing base data are presented. Only unambiguous characters are mapped. Filled circles represent homologous characters, open circles represent reversal or parallel characters. Character states are placed below the circles. Numbers on nodes indicate the bootstrap values and Bremer’s decay indices.

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References

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Publication types

Grant support

The research described is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31322051, 31320103902) and the Foundation for the Author of National Excellent Doctoral Dissertation of PR China (No. 201178). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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