The RIVUR study: a review of its findings

Pediatr Nephrol. 2015 May;30(5):703-6. doi: 10.1007/s00467-014-3021-2. Epub 2014 Dec 11.


Background: The conclusion drawn by the authors of the Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) trial is that antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the risk of recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI)-but not of renal scarring-in patients with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).

Results: A review of the findings showed that the decreased recurrent UTI rate was only present at the end of the 2-year follow-up period and was only slightly increased (12.3%) above the 10% cutoff for statistical significance. The difference was not observed in children younger than two years of age with VUR grade III and IV. In addition, the rate of new renal scarring was not statistically different between the prophylaxis and placebo groups (8.2 vs. 8.4%, respectively). A high rate of uropathogen antibiotic resistance was observed in the prophylaxis group (68.4 vs. 24.6%, respectively).

Conclusion: The analysis of the RIVUR findings questions the validity of its authors suggestion that the results may warrant reconsideration of the current recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics on obtaining a voiding cystourethrogram after the first febrile UTI and the use of urinary antibiotic prophylaxis in VUR patients.

Publication types

  • Editorial

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Kidney Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Male
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Urinary Tract Infections / prevention & control*
  • Vesico-Ureteral Reflux / complications*


  • Anti-Infective Agents