A decade of innovation in pharmaceutical R&D: the Chorus model

Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2015 Jan;14(1):17-28. doi: 10.1038/nrd4497. Epub 2014 Dec 15.


Chorus is a small, operationally independent clinical development organization within Eli Lilly and Company that specializes in drug development from candidate selection to clinical proof of concept. The mission of Chorus is to achieve proof of concept rapidly and at a low cost while positioning successful projects for 'pharma-quality' late-stage development. Chorus uses a small internal staff of experienced drug developers and a network of external vendors to design and implement chemistry, manufacturing and control processes, preclinical toxicology and biology, and Phase I/II clinical trials. In the decade since it was established, Chorus has demonstrated substantial productivity improvements in both time and cost compared to traditional pharmaceutical research and development. Here, we describe its development philosophy, organizational structure, operational model and results to date.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Clinical Trials as Topic / trends
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical / trends
  • Drug Industry / organization & administration
  • Drug Industry / trends*
  • Humans
  • Organizational Innovation*
  • Research / organization & administration
  • Research / trends*