Introduction: Congenital anomalies affect 2 to 3% of live births in Colombia and they are currently the leading cause of death in children under 1 year of age in Bogotá, and the third cause of death in children under 1 year of age in Cali. Congenital anomalies are a major factor contributing to fetal and infant mortality and morbidity in the world. Some congenital anomalies can be detected by obstetric ultrasonography, thus helping to decide on the best way to manage them.
Objective: To determine the rate of detection of congenital anomalies by obstetric ultrasound and the false positive rate comparing infants born with birth defects in Bogota and Cali treated at health care facilities of different levels of complexity.
Materials and methods: We monitored 76,155 births in the cities of Cali and Bogotá based on a case-control model following the methodology of the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC) from January 2011 to December 2012.
Results: The rate of malformed infants was 2.08%. The detection rate of diagnosable congenital anomalies was 31.45% among cases that had information about prenatal care. This rate is lower than that reported in the literature. Most of the congenital anomalies detected were of the central nervous system and of the genitourinary system.
Conclusions: The low detection rate highlights the need to improve the quality of ultrasound to have greater sensitivity for adequate prenatal diagnosis that will contribute to the reduction of morbidity and mortality and allow for better care of newborns with malformations.