A mesophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaeon, strain Z-7105(T), was isolated from the bottom sediments of a collector in the vicinity of a soda lake Tanatar II (Altai, Russia). The cells were motile, irregular cocci 0.2-1.2 μm in diameter. The organism was an obligate alkaliphile, growing within a pH range from 8.0 to 10.2 with the optimum at pH 9.0-9.5. It was obligately dependent on carbonates, growing at 0.5 to 1.6 M total carbonates with the optimum at 0.7-0.9 M. Sodium ions were also obligately required at concentrations from 0.9 to 3.3 M Na+ (optimum at 1.4-1.9 M). The organism was halotolerant, but Cl- ions were not required. Hydrogen and formate were used as electron donors. Acetate was required for anabolism. The DNA G + C content was 50.2 mol %. According to the results of its 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate belonged to the genus Methanocalculus, being the first known alkaliphilic member of this genus. Its similarity to the neutrophilic and halotolerant Methanocalculus species (M. halotolerans, M. taiwanensis, M. pumilus, and M. chunghsingensis) was 98.2-97.1%, which is within the interspecific range for this genus. The level of DNA-DNA hybridization between strain Z-7105(T) and the Methanocalculus type species M. halotolerans DSM 14092(T) was 32%. The genus Methanocalculus, including the new isolate and the previously described species, is distant from other genera of methanogens (< 90% 16S rRNA gene similarity). Based on significant phenotypic differences and the results of phylogenetic analysis, including DNA-DNA hybridization, it is proposed to assign strain Z-7105(T) (= DSM 25006(T), = VKM B-2765(T)) to the new species Methanocalculus natronophilus sp. nov. and to incorporate the genus into the new family Methanocalculaceae fam. nov.