Inclusion body myositis: a review of clinical and genetic aspects, diagnostic criteria and therapeutic approaches

J Clin Neurosci. 2015 Jan;22(1):6-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2014.09.012. Epub 2014 Dec 12.


Inclusion body myositis is the most common myopathy in patients over the age of 40 years encountered in neurological practice. Although it is usually sporadic, there is increasing awareness of the influence of genetic factors on disease susceptibility and clinical phenotype. The diagnosis is based on recognition of the distinctive pattern of muscle involvement and temporal profile of the disease, and the combination of inflammatory and myodegenerative changes and protein deposits in the muscle biopsy. The diagnostic importance of immunohistochemical staining for major histocompatibility complex I and II antigens, for the p62 protein, and of the recently identified anti-cN1A autoantibody in the serum, are discussed. The condition is generally poorly responsive to conventional immune therapies but there have been relatively few randomised controlled trials and most of these have been under-powered and of short duration. There is an urgent need for further well-designed multicentre trials of existing and novel therapies that may alter the natural history of the disease.

Keywords: Clinical phenotype; Diagnostic criteria; Genetics; Inclusion body myositis; Sporadic IBM; Treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Myositis, Inclusion Body* / diagnosis
  • Myositis, Inclusion Body* / drug therapy
  • Myositis, Inclusion Body* / genetics
  • Myositis, Inclusion Body* / immunology