A four-year-old Danish boy developed kala-azar 18 months after a holiday in Malta. Splenectomy, with liver biopsy, was performed six months after onset of symptoms because of hypersplenism, and the diagnosis of kala-azar was only made four months later, when the histopathological specimens were reviewed. Previous bone marrow biopsies did not show Leishmania. Treatment with sodium stibogluconate was successful. The development of kala-azar after one week's stay in an endemic area stresses the importance of including this potentially fatal disease in the differential diagnosis of cases presenting with fever, splenomegaly, and pancytopenia.