Uremic toxins, oxidative stress, and renal fibrosis: an interwined complex

J Ren Nutr. 2015 Mar;25(2):155-9. doi: 10.1053/j.jrn.2014.10.010. Epub 2014 Dec 12.


The prevalence of end-stage renal diseases is currently on the rise globally, and finding the way to curb this tide is urgently needed. Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a common pathway for essentially all the nephropathy categories known to date, and the manifestations of renal fibrosis include excessive deposition of extracellular matrix with distortion of renal microstructures and functional deterioration. Uremic toxins have been gradually found to play an important role in the development of progressive renal fibrosis, with protein-bound indoxyl sulfate, p-cresol, and p-cresyl sulfate receiving the most attention. However, the contribution of oxidative stress among the pathogenesis of uremic toxins and renal fibrosis has not been evaluated much until recently. In this review, we will discuss about the nature and sources of oxidative stress in the kidney and how uremic toxins use oxidative stress to orchestrate the processes of renal fibrosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Fibrosis
  • Humans
  • Kidney / physiopathology*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / physiopathology*
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology*
  • Uremia / complications
  • Uremia / physiopathology*