Background: Fondaparinux has an increased bleeding risk in patients with a CrCl ≤ 50 mL/min and is contraindicated if CrCl < 30 mL/min. Data regarding dosing and anti-Xa monitoring are lacking in this population.
Objective: To describe dosing, monitoring, and safety outcomes of prophylactic fondaparinux in critically ill patients with moderate to severe renal impairment, including renal replacement therapy (RRT).
Methods: Retrospective analysis from October 2006 to November 2012 of patients ≥ 18 years old who received fondaparinux for ≥ 72 hours with ≥ 1 dose in an intensive care unit and a CrCl ≤ 50 mL/min or RRT during therapy. Participants were divided into 4 cohorts: moderate impairment (CrCl = 30-50 mL/min), severe impairment (CrCl < 30 mL/min), hemodialysis (HD), or continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH). Outcomes included the incidence of clinically significant bleeding and thromboembolic events. Fondaparinux dose, dosing frequency, and anti-Xa level monitoring are described. Pharmacokinetic modeling was performed to assess drug accumulation.
Results: In all, 95 patients met inclusion criteria: 64 (67.4%) with moderate impairment, 10 (10.5%) with severe impairment, 5 (5.3%) with HD, and 16 (16.8%) with CVVH. The median defined daily doses in the moderate, severe, HD, and CVVH cohorts were 2.5, 2.5, 0.9, and 1.9 mg. Anti-Xa monitoring occurred in 19 (20%) patients, although few concentrations were peaks. Clinically significant bleeding occurred in 4 (4.2%) patients. A pharmacokinetic model demonstrated drug accumulation.
Conclusions: Empirical dose adjustments may be prudent in critically ill patients with renal dysfunction; however, the optimal fondaparinux dosage in this population remains unknown. Peak anti-Xa concentrations may help guide therapy.
Keywords: anti-Xa monitoring; dialysis; fondaparinux; heparin-induced thrombocytopenia; major bleeding; renal impairment.
© The Author(s) 2014.