Objectives: To compare the effects of different types of physical and mental activity on self-reported sleep quality over 12 weeks in older adults with cognitive and sleep complaints.
Design: Randomized controlled trial.
Setting: General community.
Participants: Seventy-two inactive community-dwelling older adults with self-reported sleep and cognitive problems (mean age 73.3 ± 6.1; 60% women).
Intervention: Random allocation to four arms using a two-by-two factorial design: aerobic+cognitive training, aerobic+educational DVD, stretching+cognitive training, and stretching+educational DVD arms (60 min/d, 3 d/wk for physical and mental activity for 12 weeks).
Measurements: Change in sleep quality using seven questions from the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire on the 2005 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (range 0-28, with higher scores reflecting worse sleep quality). Analyses used intention-to-treat methods.
Results: Sleep quality scores did not differ at baseline, but there was a significant difference between the study arms in change in sleep quality over time (P < .005). Mean sleep quality scores improved significantly more in the stretching+educational DVD arm (5.1 points) than in the stretching+cognitive training (1.2 points), aerobic+educational DVD (1.1 points), or aerobic+cognitive training (0.25 points) arms (all P < .05, corrected for multiple comparisons). Differences between arms were strongest for waking at night (P = .02) and taking sleep medications (P = .004).
Conclusion: Self-reported sleep quality improved significantly more with low-intensity physical and mental activities than with moderate- or high-intensity activities in older adults with self-reported cognitive and sleep difficulties. Future longer-term studies with objective sleep measures are needed to corroborate these results.
Keywords: aging; cognition; intervention; physical activity; sleep.
© 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.