New targeted therapies for breast cancer: A focus on tumor microenvironmental signals and chemoresistant breast cancers

World J Clin Cases. 2014 Dec 16;2(12):769-86. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v2.i12.769.


Breast cancer is the most frequent female malignancy worldwide. Current strategies in breast cancer therapy, including classical chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapies, are usually associated with chemoresistance and serious adverse effects. Advances in our understanding of changes affecting the interactome in advanced and chemoresistant breast tumors have provided novel therapeutic targets, including, cyclin dependent kinases, mammalian target of rapamycin, Notch, Wnt and Shh. Inhibitors of these molecules recently entered clinical trials in mono- and combination therapy in metastatic and chemo-resistant breast cancers. Anticancer epigenetic drugs, mainly histone deacetylase inhibitors and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, also entered clinical trials. Because of the complexity and heterogeneity of breast cancer, the future in therapy lies in the application of individualized tailored regimens. Emerging therapeutic targets and the implications for personalized-based therapy development in breast cancer are herein discussed.

Keywords: Breast cancer; Chemoresistance; Microenvironment; Signaling molecule; Targeted therapy.

Publication types

  • Review