Periodontal treatment outcomes during pregnancy and postpartum

Clin Oral Investig. 2015 Sep;19(7):1635-41. doi: 10.1007/s00784-014-1386-z. Epub 2014 Dec 18.


Objective: This study was conducted to compare periodontal therapy outcomes during pregnancy and after delivery.

Materials and methods: One hundred nine pregnant women up to the 20th gestational week (GW) were randomized into two groups: the test group (comprehensive periodontal therapy during pregnancy) and the control group (comprehensive periodontal therapy after delivery). Periodontal examinations comprised plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), periodontal probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) volume. After baseline examination, women in the test group received periodontal treatment up to the 24th GW. The final examination was performed at the 26th to the 28th GW. Women in the control group were treated 30 days after delivery and reexamined 30 days after treatment.

Results: Periodontal therapy significantly reduced periodontal inflammation in both groups. The mean percentage of sites with BOP was reduced from 49.14 % (±22.49) to 11.10 % (±7.84) and from 45.71 % (±17.86) to 8.07 % (±5.21) in the test and control groups, respectively (p = 0.95). No statistically significant differences were observed between groups concerning PI, GI, PPD, CAL, and GCF. The reduction in mean percentage of sites with BOP stratified for initial PPD ≥4 mm was higher in the control group (p < 0.01), but no differences were seen regarding GCF in these sites.

Conclusions: Hormonal changes during pregnancy do not interfere in treatment outcomes in women with widespread gingival inflammation and limited periodontal destruction. The role of these hormonal changes in pregnant women with different disease patterns remains uncertain.

Clinical relevance: Periodontal health can be reestablished irrespective of the hormonal challenge that takes place during pregnancy.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Periodontal Diseases / therapy*
  • Postpartum Period
  • Pregnancy
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult