Ischemia-induced loss of epithelial polarity. Role of the tight junction

J Clin Invest. 1989 Oct;84(4):1334-9. doi: 10.1172/JCI114302.


In proximal tubular cells ischemia is known to result in the redistribution of apical and basolateral domain-specific lipids and proteins into the alternate surface membrane domain. Since tight junctions are required for the maintenance of surface membrane polarity, the effect of ischemia on tight junction functional integrity was investigated. In vivo microperfusion of early loops of proximal tubules with ruthenium red (0.2%) in glutaraldehyde (2%) was used to gain selective access to and outline the apical surface membrane. Under control situations ruthenium red penetrated less than 10% of the tight junctions. After 5, 15, and 30 min of ischemia, however, there was a successive stepwise increase in tight junction penetration by ruthenium red to 29, 50, and 62%, respectively. This was associated with the rapid duration-dependent redistribution of basolateral membrane domain-specific lipids and NaK-ATPase into the apical membrane domain. Taken together, these data indicate that during ischemia proximal tubule tight junctions open, which in turn leads to the lateral intramembranous diffusion of membrane components into the alternate surface membrane domain.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Transport
  • Epithelium / enzymology
  • Epithelium / pathology
  • Epithelium / physiopathology
  • Ischemia / physiopathology*
  • Kidney Tubules, Proximal / enzymology
  • Kidney Tubules, Proximal / pathology
  • Kidney Tubules, Proximal / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Membrane Lipids / analysis
  • Membrane Potentials*
  • Phospholipids / analysis
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred Strains
  • Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase / metabolism


  • Membrane Lipids
  • Phospholipids
  • Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase