Early Childhood Gut Microbiomes Show Strong Geographic Differences Among Subjects at High Risk for Type 1 Diabetes

Diabetes Care. 2015 Feb;38(2):329-32. doi: 10.2337/dc14-0850. Epub 2014 Dec 17.

Abstract

Objective: Gut microbiome dysbiosis is associated with numerous diseases, including type 1 diabetes. This pilot study determines how geographical location affects the microbiome of infants at high risk for type 1 diabetes in a population of homogenous HLA class II genotypes.

Research design and methods: High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing was performed on stool samples collected from 90 high-risk, nonautoimmune infants participating in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study in the U.S., Germany, Sweden, and Finland.

Results: Study site-specific patterns of gut colonization share characteristics across continents. Finland and Colorado have a significantly lower bacterial diversity, while Sweden and Washington state are dominated by Bifidobacterium in early life. Bacterial community diversity over time is significantly different by geographical location.

Conclusions: The microbiome of high-risk infants is associated with geographical location. Future studies aiming to identify the microbiome disease phenotype need to carefully consider the geographical origin of subjects.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Child, Preschool
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / microbiology*
  • Feces / microbiology
  • Female
  • Finland / epidemiology
  • Germany / epidemiology
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / isolation & purification*
  • Gram-Positive Bacteria / isolation & purification*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Intestines / microbiology*
  • Male
  • Microbiota / physiology*
  • Pilot Projects
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / metabolism
  • Residence Characteristics
  • Risk Factors
  • Sweden / epidemiology
  • United States / epidemiology

Substances

  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S

Grant support