Classifying types of disseminated intravascular coagulation: clinical and animal models

J Intensive Care. 2014 Mar 6;2(1):20. doi: 10.1186/2052-0492-2-20. eCollection 2014.


Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) has a common pathogenesis in terms of persistent widespread activation of coagulation in the presence of underlying disease, but the degree of fibrinolytic activation often differs by DIC type. DIC with suppressed fibrinolysis is a DIC type usually seen in sepsis. Coagulation activation is severe, but fibrinolytic activation is mild. DIC with enhanced fibrinolysis is a DIC type usually seen in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Both coagulation activation and fibrinolytic activation are severe. DIC with balanced fibrinolysis is a DIC type usually seen in solid tumors, with an intermediate pathogenesis between the above two types. In animal DIC models, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced models are similar to suppressed-fibrinolytic-type DIC, whereas tissue factor (TF)-induced models are similar to enhanced fibrinolytic/balanced fibrinolytic DIC. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment may also differ depending on the DIC type.

Keywords: DIC with balanced fibrinolysis; DIC with enhanced fibrinolysis; DIC with suppressed fibrinolysis; Disseminated intravascular coagulation; Tranexamic acid.

Publication types

  • Review