Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2014 Dec 19;13:197.
doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-13-197.

Protective Effect of Arachidonic Acid and Linoleic Acid on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced Toxicity in PC12 Cells

Affiliations
Free PMC article

Protective Effect of Arachidonic Acid and Linoleic Acid on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced Toxicity in PC12 Cells

Kim San Tang. Lipids Health Dis. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that is being characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway in the brain. The protective effect of omega-6 fatty acids is unclear. There are lots of contradictions in the literature with regard to the cytoprotective role of arachidonic acid. To date, there is no solid evidence that shows the protective role of omega-6 fatty acids in Parkinson's disease. In the current study, the potential of two omega-6 fatty acids (i.e. arachidonic acid and linoleic acid) in alleviating 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells was examined.

Methods: Cultured PC12 cells were either treated with MPP+ alone or co-treated with one of the omega-6 fatty acids for 1 day. Cell viability was then assessed by using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

Results: Cells treated with 500 μM MPP+ for a day reduced cell viability to ~70% as compared to control group. Linoleic acid (50 and 100 μM) significantly reduced MPP+-induced cell death back to ~85-90% of the control value. The protective effect could be mimicked by arachidonic acid, but not by ciglitazone.

Conclusions: Both linoleic acid and arachidonic acid are able to inhibit MPP+-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. The protection is not mediated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ). Overall, the results suggest the potential role of omega-6 fatty acids in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Linoleic acid inhibits MPP + -induced cell death. Cultured PC12 cells were subjected to 500 μM MPP+ in the absence or presence of different concentrations of linoleic acid (LA) (1–100 μM) for 24 h at 37°C. Number of viable cells was determined by MTT assay. The control was set to 100% survival. Data are means ± SEM (n = 3). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Neuman-Keuls’ test. Means with superscripts a and b are significantly different at P < 0.05 comparing control and 500 μM MPP+ only-treated groups, respectively.
Figure 2
Figure 2
The effect of linoleic acid on PC12 cells. PC12 cells in culture were exposed to increasing doses of linoleic acid (LA) from 1–100 μM for 24 h at 37°C. Number of viable cells was determined by MTT assay. The control was set to 100% survival. Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n = 3). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Neuman-Keuls’ test. None of the data from treated-groups are statistically different when compared to the control.
Figure 3
Figure 3
The effect of arachidonic acid on PC12 cells. Cultured PC12 cells were subjected to various concentrations arachidonic acid (AA) (1–100 μM) for 24 h at 37°C. Number of viable cells was determined by MTT assay. The control was set to 100% survival. Data shown are means ± SEM (n = 3). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Neuman-Keuls’ test. Means with superscript a are significantly different at P < 0.05 comparing control.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Arachidonic acid attenuates MPP + -induced cell death. PC12 cells were exposed to 500 μM MPP+ in the different doses of arachidonic acid (AA) (1–50 μM) for 24 h at 37°C. Number of viable cells was determined by MTT assay. The control was set to 100% survival. Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n = 3). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Neuman-Keuls’ test. Means with superscripts a and b are significantly different at P < 0.05 comparing control and 500 μM MPP+ only-treated groups, respectively.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Ciglitazone does not attenuate MPP + -induced cell death. PC12 cells were treated with 500 μM MPP+, 1 μM ciglitazone, 10 μM BADGE, or combinations of these compounds for 24 h at 37°C. Number of viable cells was determined by MTT assay. The control was set to 100% survival. Data are means ± SEM (n = 3). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Neuman-Keuls’ test. Means with superscripts a and b are significantly different at P < 0.05 comparing control and 500 μM MPP+ only-treated groups, respectively.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Simultaneous treatment with arachidonic acid and linoleic acid. PC12 cells were exposed to 500 μM MPP+ in the absence or presence of 10 μM arachidonic acid (AA), 50 μM linoleic acid (LA) or combination of both, for 24 h at 37°C. Number of viable cells was determined by MTT assay. The control was set to 100% survival. Data are means ± SEM (n = 3). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Neuman-Keuls’ test. Means with superscripts a and b are significantly different at P < 0.05 comparing control and 500 μM MPP+ only-treated groups, respectively.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 4 articles

References

    1. Cheng D, Jenner AM, Shui G, Cheong WF, Mitchell TW, Nealon JR, Kim WS, McCann H, Wenk MR, Halliday GM. Lipid pathway alterations in Parkinson's disease primary visual cortex. PLoS One. 2011;6:e17299. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017299. - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Damier P, Hirsch E, Agid Y, Graybiel A. The substantia nigra of the human brain II. Patterns of loss of dopamine-containing neurons in Parkinson's disease. Brain. 1999;122:1437–1448. doi: 10.1093/brain/122.8.1437. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Jankovic J. Parkinson’s disease: clinical features and diagnosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79:368–376. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2007.131045. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Xu J, Tang KS, Lu VB, Weerasinghe CP, Tse A, Frederick WT. Maintenance of quantal size and immediately releasable granules in rat chromaffin cells by glucocorticoid. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;289:C1122–C1133. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00514.2004. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Byrd JC, Hadjiconstantinou M, Cavalla D. Epinephrine synthesis in the PC12 pheochromocytoma cell line. Eur J Pharmacol. 1986;127:139–142. doi: 10.1016/0014-2999(86)90216-5. - DOI - PubMed

Publication types

MeSH terms

Feedback