Background: Malnutrition and inflammation are highly prevalent and intimately linked conditions in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients that lead to a state of protein-energy wasting (PEW), the severity of which can be assessed by the Malnutrition-Inflammation Score (MIS). Here, we applied MIS and validated, for the first time, its ability to grade PEW and predict mortality in nondialyzed CKD patients.
Methods: We cross-sectionally evaluated 300 CKD stages 3-5 patients [median age 61 (53-68) years; estimated glomerular filtration rate 18 (12-27) mL/min/1.73 m(2); 63% men] referred for the first time to our center. Patients were followed during a median 30 (18-37) months for all-cause mortality.
Results: A worsening in MIS scale was associated with inflammatory biomarkers increase (i.e. alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, fibrinogen, ferritin and C-reactive protein) as well as a progressive deterioration in various MIS-independent indicators of nutritional status based on anthropometrics, dynamometry, urea kinetics and bioelectric impedance analysis. A structural equation model with two latent variables (assessing simultaneously malnutrition and inflammation factors) demonstrated good fit to the observed data. During a follow-up, 71 deaths were recorded; patients with higher MIS were at increased mortality risk in both crude and adjusted Cox models.
Conclusions: MIS appears to be a useful tool to assess PEW in nondialyzed CKD patients. In addition, MIS identified patients at increased mortality risk.
Keywords: acute phase response; outcomes; renal disease; undernutrition; uremia.
© The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.