Objectives: This study sought to determine mortality rates among cardiogenic shock (CGS) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome in the contemporary treatment era and to determine predictors of mortality.
Background: It is unclear whether recent advances in pharmacological and interventional strategies have resulted in further improvements in short- and long-term mortality and which factors are associated with adverse outcomes in patients presenting with CGS and undergoing PCI in the setting of acute coronary syndrome.
Methods: This study analyzed prospectively collected data for patients undergoing PCI in the setting of CGS as recorded in the BCIS (British Cardiovascular Intervention Society) PCI database.
Results: In England and Wales, 6,489 patients underwent PCI for acute coronary syndrome in the setting of CGS. The mortality rates at 30 days, 90 days, and 1 year were 37.3%, 40.0%, and 44.3%, respectively. On multiple logistic regression analysis, age (for each 10-year increment of age: odds ratio [OR]: 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.51 to 1.68; p < 0.0001), diabetes mellitus (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.28 to 1.70; p < 0.0001), history of renal disease (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.63 to 2.53; p < 0.0001), need for artificial mechanical ventilation (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 2.23 to 2.94; p < 0.0001), intra-aortic balloon pump use (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.40 to 1.76; p < 0.0001), and need for left main stem PCI (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.62 to 2.23; p < 0.0001) were associated with higher mortality at 1 year.
Conclusions: In this large U.K. cohort of patients undergoing PCI in the context of CGS, mortality remains high in spite of the use of contemporary PCI strategies. The highest mortality occurs early, and this time period may be a particular target of therapeutic intervention.
Keywords: cardiogenic shock; mortality; primary angioplasty.
Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.