A London experience 1995-2012: demographic, dietary and biochemical characteristics of a large adult cohort of patients with renal stone disease

QJM. 2015 Jul;108(7):561-8. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcu251. Epub 2014 Dec 17.


Background: Kidney stone disease has an estimated prevalence of around 10%. Genetic as well as environmental factors are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of renal stones.

Aim: The aim of our study was to analyse and report the main characteristics of patients with kidney stones attending a large UK metabolic stone clinic in London between 1995 and 2012.

Design: A cross-sectional study.

Methods: Analysis of data from stone formers attending the University College and Royal Free Hospitals' metabolic stone clinic from 1995 to 2012. Demographic, clinical, dietary and biochemical characteristics have been summarized and analysed for men and women separately; trends over time have also been analysed.

Results: Of the 2861 patients included in the analysis, 2016 (70%) were men with an average age of 47 years (range 18-87 years) and median duration of disease of 6 years (range 0-60 years). The prevalence of low urine volume, hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria and hypocitraturia was 5.6%, 38%, 7.9%, 18% and 23%, respectively. The prevalence of several risk factors for stones increased over time. The majority of stones were mixed, with around 90% composed of calcium salts in varying proportion.

Conclusion: Our findings in a large cohort of patients attending a London-based stone clinic over the past 20 years show differences in distributions of risk factors for stones for men and women, as well as metabolic profiles and stone composition. The impact of most risk factors for stones appeared to change over time.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Citric Acid / urine
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet / adverse effects
  • Diet / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypercalciuria / complications
  • Hypercalciuria / epidemiology
  • Hyperoxaluria / complications
  • Hyperoxaluria / epidemiology
  • Kidney Calculi / chemistry
  • Kidney Calculi / epidemiology
  • Kidney Calculi / etiology*
  • Kidney Calculi / urine
  • London / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Uric Acid / urine
  • Young Adult


  • Uric Acid
  • Citric Acid