Guidelines for management of sodium hypochlorite extrusion injuries

Br Dent J. 2014 Dec;217(12):679-84. doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2014.1099.


Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most common irrigant used in modern endodontics. It is highly effective at dissolving organic debris and disinfecting the root canal system due to the high pH. Extravasation of NaOCl into intra-oral and extra-oral tissues can lead to devastating outcomes leading to long-term functional and aesthetic deficits. Currently no clear guidelines are available which has caused confusion among the dental and oral and maxillofacial (OMFS) surgical community how best to manage these patients. Following a literature review and considering our own experience we have formulated clear and precise guidelines to manage patients with NaOCl injury.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Dental Pulp Cavity / drug effects
  • Dental Pulp Cavity / injuries
  • Humans
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Root Canal Irrigants / adverse effects*
  • Root Canal Irrigants / therapeutic use
  • Root Canal Preparation / adverse effects
  • Root Canal Preparation / methods
  • Sodium Hypochlorite / adverse effects*
  • Sodium Hypochlorite / therapeutic use


  • Root Canal Irrigants
  • Sodium Hypochlorite