Involvement of the mesenteric nerve in the efferent transmission of the trophic effect of short-chain fatty acids was tested in rats. A short segment of jejunum was translocated under the skin with or without its mesenteric connection maintained. A mixture of acetic, propionic, and n-butyric acids (100, 20, and 60 mM, respectively) or 0.9% NaCl (control) was injected into the caecum via an ileostomy twice a day for 14 days. Trophic effects of short-chain fatty acids were observed in jejunal and caecal segments and in the translocated jejunal segments both with and without mesenteric connection. The results suggest that short-chain fatty acids given into the hindgut lumen can indirectly stimulate the epithelial cell proliferation of a distant intestinal segment without luminal continuation to the site of administration, and this trophic effect does not require efferent transmission by nerves in the mesentery. Blood-born mediation is likely.