Previous characterizations of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) glycoprotein variation by DNA sequence analysis and epitope mapping using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have revealed the presence of conserved and variable regions within the EIAV env gene. To extend these studies, fragments of the EIAV envelope proteins gp90 and gp45 were expressed in Escherichia coli and used in Western blot analysis with a diverse panel of equine immune sera to identify antigenic segments. All sera from EIAV-infected animals reacted with the carboxyl terminal portion of gp90 and the amino terminal portion of gp45, indicating the highly conserved and immunodominant nature of these regions. Other gp90 segments, both from conserved and variable env sequences, displayed variable reactivities with the panel of equine sera. A panel of MAbs was also used in Western blot assays with the recombinant protein fragments for physical localization of previously identified MAb epitopes. The binding sites of two neutralizing MAbs were localized to a highly variable region of gp90, while nonneutralizing epitopes were localized to conserved and variable regions of the envelope glycoproteins. These results, in addition to localizing important antigenic sites on EIAV glycoproteins, indicate that previously defined conserved and variable env nucleotide sequences indeed encode protein sequences constituting conserved and variable immunogens during persistent infection by EIAV.