Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 20 (2), 204-68

Fundamental Dimensions of Environmental Risk : The Impact of Harsh Versus Unpredictable Environments on the Evolution and Development of Life History Strategies

Affiliations

Fundamental Dimensions of Environmental Risk : The Impact of Harsh Versus Unpredictable Environments on the Evolution and Development of Life History Strategies

Bruce J Ellis et al. Hum Nat.

Abstract

The current paper synthesizes theory and data from the field of life history (LH) evolution to advance a new developmental theory of variation in human LH strategies. The theory posits that clusters of correlated LH traits (e.g., timing of puberty, age at sexual debut and first birth, parental investment strategies) lie on a slow-to-fast continuum; that harshness (externally caused levels of morbidity-mortality) and unpredictability (spatial-temporal variation in harshness) are the most fundamental environmental influences on the evolution and development of LH strategies; and that these influences depend on population densities and related levels of intraspecific competition and resource scarcity, on age schedules of mortality, on the sensitivity of morbidity-mortality to the organism's resource-allocation decisions, and on the extent to which environmental fluctuations affect individuals versus populations over short versus long timescales. These interrelated factors operate at evolutionary and developmental levels and should be distinguished because they exert distinctive effects on LH traits and are hierarchically operative in terms of primacy of influence. Although converging lines of evidence support core assumptions of the theory, many questions remain unanswered. This review demonstrates the value of applying a multilevel evolutionary-developmental approach to the analysis of a central feature of human phenotypic variation: LH strategy.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 103 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. J Anat. 2008 Apr;212(4):377-93 - PubMed
    1. Evolution. 2000 Jun;54(3):740-50 - PubMed
    1. Hum Nat. 2000 Dec;11(4):335-66 - PubMed
    1. Oecologia. 2002 Jun;132(1):44-50 - PubMed
    1. JAMA. 1993 Jun 23-30;269(24):3140-5 - PubMed

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback