Background: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated risk factors among the Chinese population in Taian, China.
Methods: A primary care-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Taian, China, from September to December 2012. Participants selected by a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling procedure were interviewed and tested for hematuria, albuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and other clinical indices. Factors associated with CKD were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Results: A total of 14,399 subjects were enrolled in this study. The rates of hematuria, albuminuria and reduced eGFR were 4.20%, 5.25% and 1.89%, respectively. Approximately 9.49% (95% CI: 8.93%-10.85%) of the participants had at least one indicator of CKD, with an awareness of 1.4%. Univariate analyses showed that greater age, body mass index, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure; higher levels of serum creatinine, uric acid, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and lower eGFR were associated with CKD (p < 0.05 each). Multivariate analysis showed that age, female gender, educational level, smoking habits, systolic blood pressure, and history of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and hyperuricemia were independent risk factors for CKD.
Conclusions: The prevalence of CKD in the primary care population of Taian, China, is high, although awareness is quite low. Health education and policies to prevent CKD are urgently needed among this population.