Objective: Chronic inflammatory processes are important promotors of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) development. Based on human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) DNA detection in brain tissue from patients with TLE, an association of persistent viral infection with TLE has been discussed. Individual studies reported increased HHV-6 DNA in patients with clinical signs of previous inflammatory brain reaction, that is, febrile seizures or meningoencephalitis. However, detection rates vary considerably between different studies. Here we performed a large-scale analysis of viral DNA/RNA spectrum in high-quality TLE biopsies. In addition to all Herpesviridae, we addressed potentially relevant neurotropic RNA viruses.
Methods: DNA and RNA were extracted from 346 fresh-frozen tissue samples removed by epilepsy surgery. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested PCR were performed for Herpesviridae and RNA viruses, respectively. Clinical data were analyzed for earlier signs of inflammatory brain reactions. Fresh-frozen hippocampal tissue samples from patients without chronic central nervous system (CNS) disease served as controls (n = 62). Seven previous PCR studies with overall 178 TLE patients were additionally analyzed regarding a correlation of clinical parameters and HHV-6 detection.
Results: PCR revealed HHV-6B DNA in 34 specimens (9.8%) from TLE patients. HHV-6B DNA was also present in eight control samples (12.9%; p > 0.05), but showed a lower virus concentration (p < 0.001). Other herpesviruses and RNA viruses were virtually absent. In patients with clinical signs of previous brain inflammation, HHV-6B DNA was observed in 15.0%, whereas only 6.3% of the samples from patients without febrile seizures or meningoencephalitis were positive for HHV-6B DNA (p < 0.05). A meta-analysis of the eight HHV-6 PCR studies revealed similar results.
Significance: This biopsy-based study shows no differences in frequency of HHV-6B DNA detection between TLE patients and controls. These results do not support the hypothesis of a persistent HHV-6B infection as a major pathogenetic factor in TLE. However, the higher virus load in TLE patients and the increased detection rate of HHV-6B DNA in patients with previous inflammatory brain reactions require further investigations.
Keywords: Encephalitis; Epileptogenesis; Febrile seizures; HHV-6; Inflammation.
Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.