The effect of 900 and 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency irradiation and nicotine sulfate administration on the embryonic development of Xenopus laevis

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2015 Mar;113:378-90. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.12.020. Epub 2014 Dec 20.


The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GSM-like radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF EMR) and nicotine sulfate (NS) exposure on Xenopus embryonic development.The developmental effects of GSM-like RF-EMR (900-1800 MHz, at a SAR value of 1W/kg and NS on Xenopus laevis embryos were investigated). Following the application of radiofrequency radiation and/or NS administration, the embryos were closely examined in order to determine their possible teratogenic effects. Xenopus frogs obtained from the Department of Physiology of the Cukurova University, in accordance described by the Standard Guide of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Following the exposure of Xenopus embryos to RF-EMR at 900 and 1800 MHz (1.0W/kg) for 4, 6 and 8h; the whole body specific energy absorption rate (SAR) of the embryos was calculated. With the exception of irradiation at 1800 MHz no dramatic developmental anomalies were observed in the Xenopus embryos in association with RF-EMR applications. Combined RF-EMR and NS applications resulted in dramatic abnormalities and death among the Xenopus embryos. The study results indicated that GSM-like RF-EMR (e.g. radiation from cell phones) was not as harmful to Xenopus embryos as might have been expected. However, the combined effects of GSM-like RF-EMR and NS on Xenopus embryos were more severe than the effect of RF-EMR or NS alone. In conclusion, the study results appear to suggest that the combined use of nicotine and cell phones might result in more pronounced detrimental effects on the health of smokers.

Keywords: GSM-like radiofrequency radiation; Nicotine sulfate; Teratogenicity; Xenopus laevis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Phone
  • Embryonic Development / drug effects*
  • Embryonic Development / radiation effects*
  • Male
  • Nicotine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Nicotine / toxicity*
  • Radio Waves*
  • Xenopus laevis


  • Nicotine