High-throughput epitope discovery reveals frequent recognition of neo-antigens by CD4+ T cells in human melanoma

Nat Med. 2015 Jan;21(1):81-5. doi: 10.1038/nm.3773. Epub 2014 Dec 22.


Tumor-specific neo-antigens that arise as a consequence of mutations are thought to be important for the therapeutic efficacy of cancer immunotherapies. Accumulating evidence suggests that neo-antigens may be commonly recognized by intratumoral CD8+ T cells, but it is unclear whether neo-antigen-specific CD4+ T cells also frequently reside within human tumors. In view of the accepted role of tumor-specific CD4+ T-cell responses in tumor control, we addressed whether neo-antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell reactivity is a common property in human melanoma.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antigen Presentation / immunology
  • Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte / genetics
  • Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy*
  • Melanoma / genetics
  • Melanoma / immunology*
  • Melanoma / pathology
  • Mutation
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6
  • bcl-X Protein / genetics


  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • BCL2L1 protein, human
  • BCL6 protein, human
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6
  • bcl-X Protein