The Kraepelinian dichotomy viewed by neuroimaging

Schizophr Bull. 2015 Mar;41(2):330-5. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbu174. Epub 2014 Dec 22.


The Kraepelinian dichotomy between schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) is being challenged by recent epidemiological and biological studies. We performed a comparative review of neuroimaging features in both conditions at several scales: whole-brain and regional volumes, brain activity, connectivity, and networks. Structural volumetric neuroimaging studies suggest a common pattern of volume decreases, but networks studies reveal a clearer distinction between BD and SZ with an altered connectivity generalized to all brain networks in SZ and restricted to limbic, paralimbic, and interhemispheric networks in BD.

Keywords: Kraepelinian dichotomy; bipolar disorder; connectivity; neuroimaging; schizophrenia.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bipolar Disorder* / pathology
  • Bipolar Disorder* / physiopathology
  • Brain* / pathology
  • Brain* / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Nerve Net* / pathology
  • Nerve Net* / physiopathology
  • Neuroimaging*
  • Schizophrenia* / pathology
  • Schizophrenia* / physiopathology