Objective: To report prevalence and correlates of water pipe tobacco smoking (WTS) use among U.S. adults.
Methods: Data were from the 2009-2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Estimates of WTS ever and current use were reported overall, and by sex, age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, annual household income, sexual orientation, and cigarette smoking status. State-level prevalence rates of WTS ever were reported using choropleth thematic maps for the overall population and by sex.
Results: The national prevalence of WTS ever was 9.8% and 1.5% for current use. WTS ever was more prevalent among those who are male (13.4%), 18-24 years old (28.4%) compared to older adults, non-Hispanic White (9.8%) compared to non-Hispanic Black, with some college education (12.4%) compared to no high school diploma, and reporting sexual minority status (21.1%) compared to heterosexuals. States with highest prevalence included DC (17.3%), NV (15.8%), and CA (15.5%).
Conclusion: WTS is now common among young adults in the US and high in regions where cigarette smoking prevalence is the lowest and smoke-free policies have a longer history. To reduce its use, WTS should be included in smoke-free regulations and state and federal regulators should consider policy development in other areas, including taxes, labeling, and distribution.
Keywords: Hookah; Shisha; Smoking; Tobacco; Water pipe.
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