The aim of this study was to determine if molecular alterations are associated with tumor location and radiological characteristics in anaplastic gliomas. We performed a retrospective analysis of 122 anaplastic gliomas for molecular alterations (IDH1/2 mutations, TP53 mutations, and 1p19q co-deletion) to compare MRI features (location and image characteristics). We observed that IDH mutation is strongly associated with frontal location (P = 0.001). However, 13 tumors not located in the cerebral cortex were IDH intact tumors (P < 0.0001). While IDH mutation and TP53 mutation are significantly associated with AA (p < 0.0001), IDH mutation and 1p19q co-deletion were significantly associated with AO/AOA (p < 0.0001). No tumors with IDH mutation and 1p19q co-deletion infiltrated the temporal lobe (P = 0.003). The tumors with 1p19q co-deletion and histologically diagnosed as AO/AOA were associated with contrast enhancement on MR images (p = 0.007, p = 0.002, respectively) and those with TP53 mutation had a weak association with sharp tumor borders (p = 0.043). MRI features might be useful to predict molecular profiles in anaplastic gliomas.