The association between dietary intake and the history of Candida vulvovaginitis was evaluated in 166 women who had a history of Candida vulvovaginitis in the past 5 years (cases) and in 207 women without such a history (total population), as well as in 74 women with five or more episodes in the past 5 years and 125 women with no history of Candida vulvovaginitis. Women were interviewed about their demographic data, past medical and sexual history, and their history of vaginal or pelvic infections. An extensive dietary history was taken to determine each woman's usual adult dietary intake. Results indicate associations between total caloric intake, carbohydrates, and fiber and a history of Candida vulvovaginitis. The results were not altered by controlling for age, body mass index, smoking, use of oral contraceptives, and sexual activity variables. These results suggest several dietary constituents may influence susceptibility to Candida vulvovaginitis infections. A follow-up prospective study, using culture confirmation of Candida infection, is needed.