Increasing endocannabinoid levels in the ventral pallidum restore aberrant dopamine neuron activity in the subchronic PCP rodent model of schizophrenia

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014 Oct 31;18(1):pyu035. doi: 10.1093/ijnp/pyu035.


Background: Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder that affects 1% of the US population. While the exogenous administration of cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol is reported to exacerbate psychosis in schizophrenia patients, augmenting the levels of endogenous cannabinoids has gained attention as a possible alternative therapy to schizophrenia due to clinical and preclinical observations. Thus, patients with schizophrenia demonstrate an inverse relationship between psychotic symptoms and levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide. In addition, increasing endocannabinoid levels (by blockade of enzymatic degradation) has been reported to attenuate social withdrawal in a preclinical model of schizophrenia. Here we examine the effects of increasing endogenous cannabinoids on dopamine neuron activity in the sub-chronic phencyclidine (PCP) model. Aberrant dopamine system function is thought to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.

Methods: Using in vivo extracellular recordings in chloral hydrate-anesthetized rats, we now demonstrate an increase in dopamine neuron population activity in PCP-treated rats.

Results: Interestingly, endocannabinoid upregulation, induced by URB-597, was able to normalize this aberrant dopamine neuron activity. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the ventral pallidum is the site where URB-597 acts to restore ventral tegmental area activity.

Conclusions: Taken together, we provide preclinical evidence that augmenting endogenous cannabinoids may be an effective therapy for schizophrenia, acting in part to restore ventral pallidal activity.

Keywords: cannabinoids; hippocampus; phencyclidine; schizophrenia; ventral pallidum.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Basal Forebrain / drug effects
  • Basal Forebrain / physiopathology*
  • Benzamides / pharmacology
  • Carbamates / pharmacology
  • Central Nervous System Agents / pharmacology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dopaminergic Neurons / drug effects
  • Dopaminergic Neurons / physiology*
  • Endocannabinoids / metabolism*
  • Hippocampus / drug effects
  • Hippocampus / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Microelectrodes
  • Phencyclidine
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Schizophrenia / physiopathology*
  • Sodium Channel Blockers / pharmacology
  • Tetrodotoxin / pharmacology
  • Ventral Tegmental Area / drug effects
  • Ventral Tegmental Area / physiopathology


  • Benzamides
  • Carbamates
  • Central Nervous System Agents
  • Endocannabinoids
  • Sodium Channel Blockers
  • cyclohexyl carbamic acid 3'-carbamoylbiphenyl-3-yl ester
  • Tetrodotoxin
  • Phencyclidine