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Comparative Study
. 2014 Dec 24;8:139.
doi: 10.1186/s12918-014-0139-6.

Invariance and Plasticity in the Drosophila Melanogaster Metabolomic Network in Response to Temperature

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Free PMC article
Comparative Study

Invariance and Plasticity in the Drosophila Melanogaster Metabolomic Network in Response to Temperature

Ramkumar Hariharan et al. BMC Syst Biol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Metabolomic responses to extreme thermal stress have recently been investigated in Drosophila melanogaster. However, a network level understanding of metabolomic responses to longer and less drastic temperature changes, which more closely reflect variation in natural ambient temperatures experienced during development and adulthood, is currently lacking. Here we use high-resolution, non-targeted metabolomics to dissect metabolomic changes in D. melanogaster elicited by moderately cool (18°C) or warm (27°C) developmental and adult temperature exposures.

Results: We find that temperature at which larvae are reared has a dramatic effect on metabolomic network structure measured in adults. Using network analysis, we are able to identify modules that are highly differentially expressed in response to changing developmental temperature, as well as modules whose correlation structure is strongly preserved across temperature.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the effect of temperature on the metabolome provides an easily studied and powerful model for understanding the forces that influence invariance and plasticity in biological networks.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Effect of temperature on sample metabolite intensities for males (top) and females (bottom). Metabolite intensities are plotted for each of the four metabolites. All four metabolites had FDR-adjusted p values below 0.01.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Correlation and main effects for a pair of metabolites from male (a) and female (b) fly metabolomics data. Top panel: Correlation between two metabolites at 18°C (left) and 27°C (right). Lines are least-squares regression. Bottom panel: Effect of temperature on each of these two metabolites.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Differentially co-expressed (a and b) and preserved (c and d) metabolite modules of metabolites in males (a and c) and females (b and d) in response to developmental temperature. The heat maps consist of an N x N grid of N metabolites, and each pixel represents the correlation coefficient across samples between any two metabolites (red is positive, blue is negative). The metabolites are ordered such that groups of highly correlated metabolites (modules) are clustered together. The top left represents correlations between pairs of metabolites at developmental temperature of 18°C., and the bottom right at 27°C. To identify modules that change or are preserved significantly between the two conditions, we used the R package DiffCoEx (see Methods). Modules of metabolites are depicted as black squares along the central diagonal, and also as colored boxes on the bottom and on the left. A correlation color scale is shown on the right, with red corresponding to r = 1, and blue to r = −1.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Preserved module in female fly metabolome. Architecture of the brown module, a highly preserved module in the female fly metabolome between 18°C (left) and 27°C (right). Nodes represent metabolites and edges represent correlations between the node pairs. Only correlation values of r ≥ 0.7 (red) or r ≤ −0.7 (blue) are shown. The location and relative order of each node in the module are the same across the two temperature conditions.

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