Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the associations between self-efficacy and the various factors in the Health Belief Model (HBM), and the health-promoting behaviors of people with, or at high risk of, Metabolic Syndrome (MS).
Methods: 132 adults with two or more MS components were included in this cross-sectional study. Health-promoting behavior, self-efficacy and the four-constructs of HBM (perceived threat, cues, benefits, and barriers) were measured using validated tools. The contributions of each HBM factor towards the respective behavior were identified using a three-step hierarchical regression approach.
Results: After controlling for age, gender, education level, income and knowledge of MS, HBM factors accounted for 11% of the total variance in health-promoting behaviors. Beliefs about barriers were found to be a significant predictor of exercise (β=-.28, p<.01) and diet management (β=-.24, p=<.01), suggesting that a higher level of perceived barrier was associated with a lower frequency of health-promoting behaviors. In the final model, self-efficacy explained an additional 31% of the variance in exercise behavior and 13% in diet management behavior.
Conclusions: Self-efficacy and perceived barriers made independent contributions to health-promoting behavior among people with, or at high risk of, MS. Community health program targeting this particular group should tailor strategies that can enhance individuals' self-efficacy and address barriers perceived.
Keywords: Health education; Health promotion; Metabolic syndrome; Patient education; Primary health care.
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