Factors associated with health-promoting behavior of people with or at high risk of metabolic syndrome: Based on the health belief model

Appl Nurs Res. 2015 May;28(2):197-201. doi: 10.1016/j.apnr.2014.11.001. Epub 2014 Nov 13.


Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the associations between self-efficacy and the various factors in the Health Belief Model (HBM), and the health-promoting behaviors of people with, or at high risk of, Metabolic Syndrome (MS).

Methods: 132 adults with two or more MS components were included in this cross-sectional study. Health-promoting behavior, self-efficacy and the four-constructs of HBM (perceived threat, cues, benefits, and barriers) were measured using validated tools. The contributions of each HBM factor towards the respective behavior were identified using a three-step hierarchical regression approach.

Results: After controlling for age, gender, education level, income and knowledge of MS, HBM factors accounted for 11% of the total variance in health-promoting behaviors. Beliefs about barriers were found to be a significant predictor of exercise (β=-.28, p<.01) and diet management (β=-.24, p=<.01), suggesting that a higher level of perceived barrier was associated with a lower frequency of health-promoting behaviors. In the final model, self-efficacy explained an additional 31% of the variance in exercise behavior and 13% in diet management behavior.

Conclusions: Self-efficacy and perceived barriers made independent contributions to health-promoting behavior among people with, or at high risk of, MS. Community health program targeting this particular group should tailor strategies that can enhance individuals' self-efficacy and address barriers perceived.

Keywords: Health education; Health promotion; Metabolic syndrome; Patient education; Primary health care.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Health Promotion*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Models, Theoretical*
  • Risk Factors