Next generation sequencing improves detection of drug resistance mutations in infants after PMTCT failure

J Clin Virol. 2015 Jan;62:48-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2014.11.014. Epub 2014 Nov 20.


Background: Next generation sequencing (NGS) allows the detection of minor variant HIV drug resistance mutations (DRMs). However data from new NGS platforms after Prevention-of-Mother-to-Child-Transmission (PMTCT) regimen failure are limited.

Objective: To compare major and minor variant HIV DRMs with Illumina MiSeq and Life Technologies Ion Personal Genome Machine (PGM) in infants infected despite a PMTCT regimen.

Study design: We conducted a cross-sectional study of NGS for detecting DRMs in infants infected despite a zidovudine (AZT) and Nevirapine (NVP) regimen, before initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy. Sequencing was performed on PCR products from plasma samples on PGM and MiSeq platforms. Bioinformatic analyses were undertaken using a codon-aware version of the Smith-Waterman mapping algorithm and a mixture multinomial error filtering statistical model.

Results: Of 15 infants, tested at a median age of 3.4 months after birth, 2 (13%) had non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) DRMs (K103N and Y181C) by bulk sequencing, whereas PGM detected 4 (26%) and MiSeq 5 (30%). NGS enabled the detection of additional minor variant DRMs in the infant with K103N. Coverage and instrument quality scores were higher with MiSeq, increasing the confidence of minor variant calls.

Conclusions: NGS followed by bioinformatic analyses detected multiple minor variant DRMs in HIV-1 RT among infants where PMTCT failed. The high coverage of MiSeq and high read quality improved the confidence of identified DRMs and may make this platform ideal for minor variant detection.

Keywords: HIV-1 drug resistance; Minor variant antiretroviral drug resistance mutations; Nevirapine; Next generation sequencing; Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance; Prevention of mother to child transmission.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology*
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • Computational Biology
  • Drug Resistance, Viral*
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • HIV Infections / diagnosis*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / transmission
  • HIV Infections / virology*
  • HIV-1 / drug effects*
  • HIV-1 / genetics*
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical / prevention & control
  • Male
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Mutation
  • Mutation Rate
  • RNA, Viral
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Viral Load


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • RNA, Viral