Purpose: To report 1-year results of a single-center randomized controlled trial comparing paclitaxel-coated balloon (PCB) versus high-pressure plain balloon angioplasty for the treatment of failing arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs).
Materials and methods: Forty patients (26 men; mean age, 61 y ± 14.63) were randomized at 1:1 to undergo PCB (n = 20) or high-pressure balloon (HPB; n = 20) angioplasty of dysfunctional AVFs. There were no significant differences in baseline demographics between groups. Enrollment required a clinical diagnosis of a dysfunctional AVF attributed to a single stenotic lesion verified with digital subtraction angiography. Primary endpoints included device success, anatomic success, clinical success, and target lesion revascularization (TLR)-free survival. Secondary endpoints included dialysis circuit primary patency and procedure-related complication rates.
Results: Device success rates were 100% in the HPB group and 35% in the PCB group (P < 0001): further dilation with an HPB was needed to achieve anatomic success in 13 of 20 cases in the PCB group (65%). Anatomic and clinical success rates were 100% in both groups. TLR-free survival (PCB, 308 d; HPB, 161 d; hazard ratio [HR], 0.478; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.236-0.966; P = .03) and access circuit primary patency (PCB, 270 d; HPB, 161 d; HR, 0.479; 95% CI, 0.237-0.968; P = .04) were significantly in favor of PCB angioplasty. No minor or major procedure-related complications occurred.
Conclusions: In this single-center study, the use of PCBs resulted in superior TLR-free survival and dialysis access circuit primary patency of dysfunctional AVFs. However, additional HPB postdilation was required in the majority of cases.
Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.