Background: Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a multifunctional cytokine produced by macrophages, monocytes, and T-helper cells. Two polymorphisms at positions -592 and -1082 have been associated with HIV susceptibility. However, their associations with susceptibility to HIV and its co-infections among intravenous drug users (IDUs) are largely unknown.
Methods: A total of 345 IDUs were recruited. Of the 173 HIV negative IDUs, 20 were classified as highly exposed HIV seronegative subjects (HESNs). A control group consisted of 496 blood donors; all HIV, HCV, and HBV negative. The IL-10-592C/A and -1082A/G were determined using TaqMan allelic discrimination assay.
Results: Of the IDUs, 50% were HIV positive, 89% HCV positive, 67% HBV positive and 41% had triple infection. IL-10-592C allele and -1082A allele were the most common and the -1082AG/-592CC was the most common genotype pair. All HESNs exhibited -1082A allele as compared to 81.4% of the HIV positive IDUs and 79% of donors (p=0.029 and p=0.019, respectively). None of HESNs had GG/CC genotype pair compared with 18.6% of HIV positive IDUs and 21.0% of donors (p=0.029 and p=0.019, respectively). The possession of -592AC and genotype pair AG/AC were associated with the decreased odds of HBV infection (OR=0.28; 95% CI 0.09-0.87; p=0.028 and OR=0.19; 95% CI 0.06-0.61; p=0.052, respectively).
Conclusions: The presence of low producing IL-10-1082A and -592A alleles and their containing genetic variants protect highly exposed IDUs against acquisition of HIV and HBV infections.
Keywords: Co-infection; Genetic factors; HIV susceptibility; IDU; IL-10; Inflammation.
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