Development of normative data for the Brazilian adaptation of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test

Chem Senses. 2015 Feb;40(2):141-9. doi: 10.1093/chemse/bju068. Epub 2014 Dec 29.


It is well established that olfactory dysfunction has significant implications for safety, nutrition, and quality of life. The more reliable standardized tests of olfactory function, such as the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), assess odor identification ability. Unfortunately, cultural factors can influence such tests, as a number of odors are not universally recognized. In this study, a Portuguese language version of the UPSIT was administered to an age- and sex-stratified prospective sample of 1820 Brazilian subjects. Normative data were developed for a subset of 1578 subjects who reported having no difficulties smelling or tasting. Individuals with a history of head trauma or, in the case of those over the age of 64 years, Mini-Mental State Examination Scores <24, were excluded from analysis. As in other populations, the test scores were significantly influenced by age and sex. The median overall difference between the North American and Brazilian UPSIT scores was 2.2 points for men and 0.8 points for women, although subtle age-related differences were also apparent. This research represents that largest clinical study of olfaction ever performed in South America. Correction factors based upon age and sex are provided to allow for direct comparisons of Brazilian test scores to those based upon North American norms.

Keywords: UPSIT; age; culture; humans; odor identification; odors; olfaction; olfaction disorders/diagnosis; psychophysics; sex; smell; smell physiology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Brazil
  • Cultural Characteristics
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests*
  • Olfaction Disorders / diagnosis
  • Olfactory Perception / physiology*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Reference Values
  • Smell
  • United States
  • Young Adult