Emerging technologies for electronic monitoring of adherence, inhaler competence, and true adherence

J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2015 Apr;28(2):69-81. doi: 10.1089/jamp.2014.1163. Epub 2014 Dec 30.


Despite the availability of effective treatments for respiratory disorders, disease control is often suboptimal, due in part to the failure of patients to adhere to prescribed regimens, or to demonstrate competence with the often complex steps in the administration of inhaled medications. The cost of poor true adherence, a combined measure of adherence and inhaler competence, is considerable, both economically and in terms of health-related impact. While patient education is recognized as essential, there exist many barriers to healthcare professional-led monitoring and promotion of true adherence. Successful intervention remains a challenging task, dependent upon understanding and addressing the distinct issues associated with poor adherence and inhaler competence, and lessening the perceived burden on healthcare professionals. Electronic monitors provide an accurate and objective indication of adherence and may also be of value in assessing inhaler competence. The information provided by such devices is a helpful aid to understanding the challenging nature of true adherence, and may be crucial to the development and assessment of true adherence promoting interventions. This article provides a background to the impact of suboptimal adherence and inhaler competence, and the challenges associated with the promotion of true adherence, with an emphasis on respiratory therapies. Contemporary electronic monitors of adherence and inhaler competence are critically reviewed, and case studies of emerging technologies are provided to illustrate the use of innovative monitoring devices in the promotion of true adherence in practice. Potential future directions, including increased targeting and individualization, enhanced coordination of care, and a greater focus on inhaler competence are considered to be important additions to currently available technologies in this rapidly evolving field.

Keywords: adherence; electronic monitoring; inhaler competence; true adherence.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Attitude of Health Personnel
  • Equipment Design
  • Feedback, Psychological
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Humans
  • Medication Adherence*
  • Nebulizers and Vaporizers*
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Reminder Systems / instrumentation*
  • Respiratory System Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Telemetry / instrumentation*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Respiratory System Agents