Description: The Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Foundation developed clinical care guidelines for the prevention of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, the treatment of initial P. aeruginosa infection, and the use of bronchoscopy to obtain routine airway cultures in individuals with CF.
Methods: A multidisciplinary committee developed questions about the prevention and treatment of initial P. aeruginosa infection and the use of bronchoscopy to obtain routine airway cultures. The outcome measure of interest was cultures without P. aeruginosa growth. Systematic reviews of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were conducted in May 2012 and August 2013. Searches combined controlled vocabulary terms and text words for CF and terms relevant to each question. The entire committee reviewed the evidence, and final recommendation statements were graded using the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force system. Recommendation 1: The CF Foundation strongly recommends inhaled antibiotic therapy for the treatment of initial or new growth of P. aeruginosa from an airway culture (certainty of net benefit, high; estimate of net benefit, substantial; grade of recommendation, A). The favored antibiotic regimen is inhaled tobramycin (300 mg twice daily) for 28 days. Recommendation 2: The CF Foundation recommends against the use of prophylactic antipseudomonal antibiotics to prevent the acquisition P. aeruginosa (certainty of net benefit, moderate; estimate of net benefit, zero; grade of recommendation, D). Recommendation 3: The CF Foundation recommends routine oropharyngeal cultures rather than bronchoalveolar lavage cultures obtained by bronchoscopy in individuals with CF who cannot expectorate sputum to determine if they are infected with P. aeruginosa (certainty of net benefit, moderate; estimate of net benefit, moderate; grade of recommendation, B).
Keywords: airway infection; antipseudomonal vaccine; bronchoscopy; inhaled antibiotics; oropharyngeal culture.