Tardive dyskinesia (syndrome): Current concept and modern approaches to its management

Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2015 Jun;69(6):321-34. doi: 10.1111/pcn.12270. Epub 2015 Feb 9.

Abstract

Tardive dyskinesia is a serious, disabling and potentially permanent, neurological hyperkinetic movement disorder that occurs after months or years of taking psychotropic drugs. The pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia is complex, multifactorial and still not fully understood. A number of drugs were tried for the management of this motor disturbance, yet until now no effective and standard treatment has been found. It is very disappointing to realize that the introduction of antipsychotics from the second generation has not significantly decreased the prevalence and incidence of tardive dyskinesia. Therefore, the management of this motor disturbance remains an actual topic as well as a challenge for clinicians. This review summarizes recent relevant publications concerning the treatment of tardive dyskinesia.

Keywords: first-generation agents; management; schizophrenia; second-generation agents; tardive dyskinesia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Amantadine / therapeutic use
  • Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use
  • Antioxidants / therapeutic use
  • Antipsychotic Agents / adverse effects*
  • Clonazepam / therapeutic use
  • Dopamine Agents / therapeutic use
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal / therapeutic use
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / therapeutic use
  • Ginkgo biloba
  • Humans
  • Isoleucine / therapeutic use
  • Isoxazoles / therapeutic use
  • Leucine / therapeutic use
  • Levetiracetam
  • Melatonin / therapeutic use
  • Movement Disorders / drug therapy*
  • Movement Disorders / etiology
  • Nootropic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Piracetam / analogs & derivatives
  • Piracetam / therapeutic use
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use
  • Propranolol / therapeutic use
  • Pyridoxine / therapeutic use
  • Resveratrol
  • Stilbenes / therapeutic use
  • Tetrabenazine / therapeutic use
  • Valine / therapeutic use
  • Vitamins / therapeutic use
  • Zonisamide
  • alpha-Tocopherol / therapeutic use

Substances

  • Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors
  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Antioxidants
  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • Dopamine Agents
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  • Isoxazoles
  • Nootropic Agents
  • Plant Extracts
  • Stilbenes
  • Vitamins
  • Yi-Gan San
  • Isoleucine
  • Levetiracetam
  • Zonisamide
  • Clonazepam
  • Propranolol
  • Amantadine
  • Leucine
  • alpha-Tocopherol
  • Valine
  • Melatonin
  • Pyridoxine
  • Resveratrol
  • Tetrabenazine
  • Piracetam