Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and patterns of resistance to integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) in patients experiencing virological failure on raltegravir-based ART and the impact on susceptibility to INSTIs (raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir).
Patients and methods: Data were collected from 502 treatment-experienced patients failing a raltegravir-containing regimen in a multicentre study. Reverse transcriptase, protease and integrase were sequenced at failure for each patient. INSTI resistance-associated mutations investigated were those included in the last ANRS genotypic algorithm (v23).
Results: Among the 502 patients, at failure, median baseline HIV-1 RNA (viral load) was 2.9 log10 copies/mL. Patients had been previously exposed to a median of five NRTIs, one NNRTI and three PIs. Seventy-one percent harboured HIV-1 subtype B and the most frequent non-B subtype was CRF02_AG (13.3%). The most frequent mutations observed were N155H/S (19.1%), Q148G/H/K/R (15.4%) and Y143C/G/H/R/S (6.7%). At failure, viruses were considered as fully susceptible to all INSTIs in 61.0% of cases, whilst 38.6% were considered as resistant to raltegravir, 34.9% to elvitegravir and 13.9% to dolutegravir. In the case of resistance to raltegravir, viruses were considered as susceptible to elvitegravir in 11% and to dolutegravir in 64% of cases. High HIV-1 viral load at failure (P < 0.001) and low genotypic sensitivity score of the associated treatment with raltegravir (P < 0.001) were associated with the presence of raltegravir-associated mutations at failure. Q148 mutations were selected more frequently in B subtypes versus non-B subtypes (P = 0.004).
Conclusions: This study shows that a high proportion of viruses remain susceptible to dolutegravir in the case of failure on a raltegravir-containing regimen.
Keywords: inhibitors; integrase; mutations; patterns.
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