Background: Short sleep duration has been shown to be associated with cardio/cerebrovascular disease. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) have been associated with an increased risk of stroke. In addition to high ambulatory blood pressure (BP), chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk for WMH. In this study, we investigated the relationships among sleep duration, CKD, and WMH in elderly hypertensives.
Methods: Ambulatory BP monitoring and brain magnetic resonance imaging were performed in 514 Japanese elderly hypertensives (mean age 72.3 years, males 37%). WMH cases were further divided into deep subcortical white matter lesion or periventricular hyperintensity (PVH). CKD (n = 193) was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2).
Results: According to sleep duration (<7.5, ≥7.5 to <9.5, and ≥9.5 hour per night), significant associations of sleep duration were observed with WMH and PVH. In the regression analysis including age, gender, smoking, antiplatelet agents use, 24-hour systolic BP, nondipper, white coat hypertension and CKD, short sleep duration was significantly positively associated with WMH and PVH when subjects with mid-range sleep duration were used as a reference group. A significant interaction was found between short sleep duration and CKD for PVH. In the non-CKD group, short sleep duration had strong significant positive associations with WMH and PVH.
Conclusions: In the present study, short sleep duration was a positive significant determinant for WMH and PVH in elderly hypertensives. Sleep duration might serve as a strong determinant for white matter lesions especially in those without CKD.
Keywords: blood pressure; cerebral small vessel disease; hypertension; kidney function; sleep duration; white matter hyperintensity..
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