Modulation of PPARγ and TNFα by emu oil and glycyrrhizin in ulcerative colitis

Inflammopharmacology. 2015 Feb;23(1):47-56. doi: 10.1007/s10787-014-0226-8. Epub 2015 Jan 6.


Ulcerative Colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disorder that affects colon and rectum. Treatments in many UC patients remain variably effective and are associated with considerable adverse effects. So the present study was undertaken to explore the antiinflammatory effects of emu oil, glycyrrhizin, and combination of emu oil and glycyrrhizin in acetic acid-induced UC in rats. UC was induced by intracolonic instillation of 5% acetic acid in rats. Emu oil and glycyrrhizin were orally administered to test groups. Severity of colitis was scored macroscopically and microscopically. The levels of myeloperoxidase and antioxidant enzymes namely catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were assessed spectrophotometrically. Expressions of PPARγ and TNFα were studied by real-time PCR. Acetic acid caused severe damage to colon and rectum. Emu oil and glycyrrhizin were found to significantly reduce macroscopic and microscopic lesions and decrease levels of myeloperoxidase. There was a significant improvement of antioxidant levels in treatment groups compared to acetic acid group. Combination of emu oil and glycyrrhizin showed a markedly greater modulation of PPARγ and TNFα expression than emu oil and glycyrrhizin when administered alone. Combination of emu oil and glycyrrhizin might have had synergistic effects in regulating PPARγ and TNFα. Further studies on mechanism of action of emu oil and glycyrrhizin combination would pave the way to define possibility of this combination as effective in the management of UC.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Colitis, Ulcerative / drug therapy*
  • Colitis, Ulcerative / metabolism*
  • Colitis, Ulcerative / pathology
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Glycyrrhizic Acid / administration & dosage*
  • Oils / administration & dosage*
  • PPAR gamma / physiology*
  • Random Allocation
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / physiology*


  • Oils
  • PPAR gamma
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • emu Oil
  • Glycyrrhizic Acid