Background: Preterm birth is an unresolved global health issue. The etiologies of preterm birth are complex and multifactorial. To examine risk factors related to preterm birth, a matched case-control study was conducted in a hospital in Beijing, China where little data on preterm birth have been published in the scientific literature.
Methods: A 1:1 matched case-control study was conducted in 172 pairs of women with preterm birth (case group) and term delivery (control group). Eligible subjects were interviewed in person by well-trained investigators using a questionnaire. Information on obstetric diagnosis and newborns were abstracted from inpatients' medical records. Univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression models were used to measure the associations between related factors and preterm birth.
Results: Univariate analysis showed that 6 of 12 factors were associated with preterm birth. Multivariate results showed that gestational hypertension (OR = 7.76), low gestational weight gain (OR = 3.02), frequent prenatal care (OR = 0.16), balanced diet (OR = 0.36), and high gestational weight gain (OR = 0.41) were associated with preterm birth.
Conclusion: This study provides information on preterm birth in Beijing, China, and it also lends support to existing evidence about the role of maternal nutritional status, prenatal care and gestational hypertension as risk factors for preterm birth.