Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are debilitating conditions that result in intestinal damage due to chronic inflammation. In addition, the perpetual state of inflammation predisposes individuals to the development of colitis-associated cancer. Because of the immense immune cell infiltration into colon, cytokines produced by immune cells are major players in the initiation and progression of IBD and colitis-associated cancer. In this review, we will explore the functions of many key cytokines and their roles in IBD and colitis-associated cancer, as well as their influences on the immune system and stromal cells. Finally, we will briefly discuss current therapies and current clinical trials targeting cytokines in IBD.