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, 15 (4), 1000-3

Spatial Tuning of Acoustofluidic Pressure Nodes by Altering Net Sonic Velocity Enables High-Throughput, Efficient Cell Sorting

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Spatial Tuning of Acoustofluidic Pressure Nodes by Altering Net Sonic Velocity Enables High-Throughput, Efficient Cell Sorting

Seung-Yong Jung et al. Lab Chip.

Abstract

Particle sorting using acoustofluidics has enormous potential but widespread adoption has been limited by complex device designs and low throughput. Here, we report high-throughput separation of particles and T lymphocytes (600 μL min(-1)) by altering the net sonic velocity to reposition acoustic pressure nodes in a simple two-channel device. The approach is generalizable to other microfluidic platforms for rapid, high-throughput analysis.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
The dual-channel acoustofluidic device. (a) Top-view of the photomask layout used to etch silicon channels. The separation channel is shaded gray and the echo channel blue. The chip center section (with straight channels) is cut away for compactness. Overall chip dimensions are 70 mm long × 9 mm wide. The piezoceramic acoustic-force generating transducer (37 mm long × 9 mm wide) is bonded to the underside of the slide, with the fluid channel making three passes through the piezo region. (b) Simplified schematic of fluid flows and channel inlets and outlets (acoustic force generator is on the underside). (c) Rendering of the decoupled fluidic and acoustic geometries (the fluid that fills the main channel is omitted for clarity). The silicon wall separating the channels is transparent to ultrasound, producing a continuous field of sound pressure (blue curves at edges) across both channels. The red line indicates the position of the pressure focus node in the main channel, and the larger particles (yellow cells) migrate to the node as they flow through the device. (d) SEM image of the dual-channel cross-section showing the silicon wall. Scale bar = 200 μm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Focus positions in the separation channel with different fluids in the echo channel. Different focus positions in the main separation channel were observed with a suspension of 10.2-μm fluorescent polystyrene beads (0.01% w/v) at a total flow rate of 800 μL min−1. Red lines indicate position of the focused beads in the presence of different fluids in the echo channel. To find each resonance frequency, the piezo actuator drive was scanned at intervals of 0.02 MHz between 1.30 and 2.00 MHz at an actuation voltage of 15 Vpp. The table indicates experimental values compared with 1-D model calculations.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Cell transfer efficiency of MT-4 lymphocytes stained with CellTracker Red CMTPX dye at a range of total main-channel flow rates with different fluids in the echo channel. Cells were counted by flow cytometry. Transfer efficiency was calculated as the percentage of cells collected from the LPO among the total number of cells collected from both outlets. Black dots indicate cell transfer efficiencies without applying the acoustic force. Red dots and green inverted triangles represent the acoustic cell transfer efficiencies with water and 50% ethanol in the echo channel in presence of acoustic driving force values in table in Fig. 2., respectively.

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